Short Intro of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje:
2nd Great Chhatrapati of Maratha Empire
Born: 14th May 1657 at Purandar fort, Pune
Coronation: 20th July 1680 at Panhala fort
Father: Chhatrapati Shri Shivaji Maharaj
Elder Daughter: Bhavanibai
Younger Son: Chhatrapati Shri Shahu Maharaj
Reign: 20th July 1680 to 11th March 1689
Died: 11th March 1689
Childhood of Sambhaji Maharaj:
At the age of 2 years, his mother Saibai died. The reason behind his mother death had not so clear due to lack of evidence. That time Jijabai (his grandmother) was there and again she had the responsibility to develop second Shivaji. Will she able to do it? Of course, she has the ability to develop Sambhaji. She was appointed pandits (teachers) to teach the Sanskrit language.
Lessons of Jijamata to Shambhuraje:
Jijabai also taught him to respect women, how should behave in court, how to give justice to people. Sambhaji had learned martial arts skills and war tactics with lessons of his master. He was so intelligent that he called as “Mahapandit” as he mastered Sanskrit and famous for giving justice to people. He was politically targeted at very little age and had to accept Manasabdari (name of post) in Mughal Court at age of 9 years.
Sambhaji Maharaj Personality:
Sambhaji maharaj had a good physique. More details about his physique are as follows:
Sambhaji Maharaj Physical Details: Height and Weight:
Chhatrapati Sambhaji raje had height about 6’2” though its not exact height. Height was calculated referring different sources.
Treaty of Purandar: Connection with Sambhaji Maharaj History:
As this topic is about Shivaji Maharaj but Sambhaji Maharaj history was also associated with it. Jaisigh took one more promise from Shivaji that his son Sambhaji had to go with him and his son had service to Mughal court. Shivaji Maharaj when went to Delhi as promised to Mirza Jayasigh in the treaty.
Shivaji Maharaj so foresighted and well known about the importance of political union between two states. That time one has to marry at the very young age of about 7 to 14 years’ age period. Pilagirao Shirke was just entered as Knight in the court of Shivaji Maharaj. Jevubai was his daughter. He married to Jevubai, later she changed her name to “Yesubai” according to Maratha culture. The marriage of Sambhuraje was also one political decision taken by Shivaji Maharaj.
Achievements in Sambhaji Maharaj History:
Sambhaji Maharaj History at Raigad and Panhala Fort:
After the death of Shivaji, Maharaj Sambhuraje was at Panhala fort under eye surveillance of fort commander.
ii. His stepmother Soyarabai planned the conspiracy to prevent Sambhaji to became Chhatrapati of Maratha Empire with help of some influential ministers in the court of Shivaji Maharaj.
iii. When he got that information about that conspiracy, he decided to took Panhala fort under his influence.
Capture of Traitors:
Hambirrao Mohite was army Chief of Shivaji Maharaj and elder brother of Soyarabai. After Panhala Sambhaji captured Raigad fort and taken under influence with help of Hambirrao Mohite, though was the brother of Soyarabai he took a right side only. After that Sambhuraje imprisoned Soyarabai, Annaji Datto, Peshwa Moropant Pingale and one brother-in-law from Shirke family. When it came to justice he never discriminated between peoples and his own relatives like his father. When he had become Chhatrapati many conflicts between Maratha and Mughal started. Sambhaji Maharaj history gives all information about their conflict.
Sambhaji Maharaj History and Mysore Campaign:
In 1681, Sambhajiraje started southern Mysore campaign against Woodiyar Dynasty. Wodiyar Chikkadevaraya was the king of Wodiyar Dynasty at that time. He was very aggressive king at that time and not surrendered to Sambhaji and attacked instead. In return, Sambaji with his giant army fought like storming troops and won the battle. Sambhuraje release Chikkadevaraya on the promise to contribute for Swarajya in the future campaign. In between 1682 to 1686 Chikkadevaraya contributed in battles but after some time he refused and union with Mughals. As a result, Sambhaji finally captured Mysore in 1686.
Attack On Burhanpur:
In Sambhji Maharaj history also Attack of Burhanpur was famous as Sambhaji Maharaj defeated Mughal forces and looted city with 20,000 troops. Akabar-II was the fourth son of Aurangajeb rebelled against Mughal Empire and went to Aurangabad for further planning. Aurangajeb also went there and defeated his son and his troop and Akabar had to go out from there. After the defeat of Akabar-II, he had to take shelter of Sambhaji Maharaj at Raigad. In Sambhaji Maharaj history there mentioned that
Battle of Janjira :
Before Sambhaji, Shivaji Maharaj already limited the influence of Siddhi to the island of Janjira. Sambhuraje again started that campaign in 1682 against Siddhi and attacked for 30 days, he did heavy damage at Janjira, but not succeed in breaking defenses of fort completely. Then, his army attacked with help of building a causeway from shore to island. At that time, Siddhis made union with Mughals. As a result, when Sambhaji attacked Siddhis of Janjira, Mughal army attacked Raigad to distract him from Siddhis. He was very near to won that battle, but he has to go back to Raigad for a counter-attack. Unfortunately, remaining Maratha troops unable to succeed in that mission. In Sambhaji Maharaj History this battle not won, but also not lost also as he made great damage to Siddhi.
Attack of Sambhaji Maharaj On Portuguese forts and colonies:
After an unsuccessful attack on Siddhi, Sambhajiraje sent his military commander to capture Anjediva fort of Portuguese. Maratha had thought to convert that fort into naval based to build new warships and garrison. But commander failed due to some reasons and return back from Anjediva fort back to Raigad.
Sambhaji Maharaj at Portuguese campaign:
Sambhaji had to went there and continued that mission. He captured all colonies and forts of Portuguese. The situation for Portuguese was made so horrible that they had to run away from Anjediva to Cathedral where they hide in the underground vault of Church where they prayed for their liberation. Portuguese was helping Mughals in trade and allow them to pass through their region. The main goal of Sambhuraje in that mission was to break the union of Mughals and Portuguese. Sambhaji Maharaj history important for the understanding relationships between them.
Capture of Shambhuraje: Worst Event in The Maratha History:
When Sambhaji Maharaj had planning to completely throw out Mughals from Hindustan, he arranged meeting at Sangmeshwar and called all his commanders.His brother-in-law Ganoji Shirke made union with Mughals. Ganoji was so greedy and wanted “Watan” (Maratha Land) from his Kingdom, but Sambhaji rejected to give Watandari. Ganoji Shirke has exposed all hidden routes of Sangameshwar to Mughal commander Mukkarabkhan. At that time Sambhaji was with his Brahmin friend and advisor “Kavi Kalash” and with some trustworthy peoples because that meeting was so confidential. When Sambhaji Maharaj was about to leave the village, all Mughal troops surrounded him and other commanders.
Last Battle of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj at Sangameshwar:
All Maratha Knights fought with huge Mughal army, spill bloodshed till last breath. Due to number difference of troops, Sambhuraje and his close friend Kavi Kalash get captured on 1st February 1689. That time Sangameshwar was under the Maratha Empire, so there were Maratha posts (checkouts to charge tax from traders). Ganoji Shirke handled that saying, they are diamond smugglers arrested by him. After crossing all posts, Zulfikar Khan was ready with 20,000 Mughal troops, they took away Sambhaji and Kalash to Bahadurgad via Karad- Baramati route. Sambhaji Maharaj history was so inspiring as he teaches us we have to keep our soul pure and religion should not change like changing clothes. Religion means faith and by changing it we became unfaithful with the previous religion.
Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj History at Bahadurgad:
Aurangzeb humiliated both by binding them to Camels, with head down position, Mughal troops threw stones, mud, etc. to feel ashamed, Sambhaji and Kalash tolerated all those with chanting “Jagadamb, Jagadamb” (name of their family god).
Conditions of Aurangzeb:
Aurangzeb actually wanted to mortify them and when Sambhajiraje came to the court of Aurangzeb, he kept 3 conditions in front of Sambhaji to be live:
a) He had to give all Maratha forts and treasures of Maratha Empire
b) He had to disclose names of Mughal traitors which was officers in Mughal Empire
c) He had to accept Islam religion
Aurangzeb offered many attractive greedy things to break the pride of Sambhaji Sambhajiraje refused all that things. Because he refusing that conditions Aurangajeb started torturing him for accepting the Islam religion.
According to records, his torture was so frightful and was described as:
They pulled out his nails, cutting his fingers, plucking out his tongue, peeled out his skin, plucking out his eyes, cutting his both hands one by one, Finally, tearing down back to front by weapon and beheaded. After every torture, Aurangajeb went into the prison to asked him for accepting Islam, but he refused every time. The torture carried on for several days. Mughals threw their pieces of the body at the confluence of Bhima river, Tulapur.
Also In Sambhaji Maharaj history there mentioned, Some Intellectual Vadhu peoples of nearby village collected that pieces of the body and sewed them and gave final rites to his body. These peoples later called as “Shivale” (meaning sewing in the Marathi language). In Sambhaji Maharaj History there are some misconceptions due to lack of reading real history and untruth viral due to some wrong people.
Sambhajiraje showed unconditional love for Hindu religion. So, he called as the Dharamveer meaning legend of Hindu religion as he not ready to convert into other religion till his last breath. Sambhaji Maharaj history played a crucial role in converting the Maratha Kingdom to Empire. Sambhaji Maharaj history is important in Maratha History as after his sacrifice Maratha troops captured fire and stand against Mughal.
Here is list of other Historical Kings and Freedom Fighters in Indian History:
Featured Image Credits: Apricus